The department regularly offers four levels of instruction in Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin), designed to enable the student to become proficient in aural comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing, as well as introductory courses in Classical Chinese, and occasionally, Cantonese and Taiwanese. The department also offers disciplinary courses taught either in English or in Chinese on Chinese literature, linguistics, or cultural studies. Students majoring in Chinese are strongly encouraged to study in mainland China or Taiwan during one or both semesters of their junior year, or during the summer. The course numbering system for Mandarin is sequential. Students move from Chinese 101-102 to 201, 202, 301, 302, 401, 402. Independent study (Chinese 497, 498) may be offered depending on student needs and available resources. Students who have studied or otherwise developed some familiarity with Chinese language before coming to Williams and who wish to continue their language study at the college should complete a placement evaluation before pre-registering for a language course. More information about the Chinese placement evaluation can be found at https://chinese.williams.edu/faq/. For the purpose of the distribution requirement, all courses in Chinese are considered Division I unless otherwise noted. More information can be found on the website of the Department of Asian Languages, Literatures, and Cultures.